Last week, I shared out the notes I took from an Open Space suggestion I made at DevOpsDays Chicago, “Container Conundrum: Pain points around containers.” The premise was trying to figure out where people are struggling with managing containers and the applications in them in their environments. My friend Ed Vielmetti joined in as well. I want to stress that no one else in the room identified their employer (nor would I have recorded that data or anything that could lead me to it), so your trade secrets are pretty safe. I learned quite a bit, so I’ll share more details here.

Kubernetes Everywhere

Everyone in the room was using Kubernetes. The participants were using no other container orchestrators. This shows that Kubernetes adoption grew tremendously in the three years since the last time I was at a DevOpsDays Chicago in person. One pair of folks in the Open Space were building artisanal vanilla Kubernetes clusters by hand across multiple clouds (AWS, GCP, Azure, and IBM Cloud). But my notes indicate we’re not hitting on all cylinders with Kubernetes yet. I’ll explain further.


OMG… I’m scared y’all. Not scared, but we had just left a fantastic ignite talk from Hannah Sutor about maintaining the least privileged permissions throughout our environments. The question was asked, “Is anyone practicing those least privileges in their environments?” No one in the room spoke up.

This leaves the imagination to wonder. Is Kubernetes RBAC too hard? Is IAM hard? Is getting access and authorization tightly scoped harder than we all wished it was? And that’s just my chicken scratch. This is a problem for anyone worried about their containerized applications.

One shocking twist of events made the security team at one organization go from an operational security team to a “non-operational” security team. What this meant for the organization was that the Security team wouldn’t be hands-on in fixing security concerns and managing configuration. The team would open issues/tickets instead and leave them for the platform team to clean up. This was a step backward in their DevOps journey. But security teams are overwhelmed, and this extreme case was a solid reminder. I hope this strategy works, but it felt wildly “throw it over the wall” like.


Wide use of Kubernetes Secrets was no surprise. One organization had a way to spit out an array of credentials for a given application as a ConfigMap (it was wired up with Vault and a config management system). This sounded like a very cool way of going about secrets. You still have to worry about credentials on disk, but you don’t have to juggle a dozen individual secrets for your applications.

Open source and enterprise Hashicorp Vault saw wide usage in this bunch. But, how the cluster consumed those credentials had a lot of variations. Sops, External Secrets Operator, and regular ole Kubernetes Secrets were all ways secrets got from their given store to applications. One workflow included using AWS Parameter Store with External Secrets, which is a very viable way of storage for configuration data management and secrets management.

It was nice to see a wide range of tooling in use. But, one organization took the cake. They were running open source Hashicorp Vault across their entire Kubernetes fleet. They knew if it ever went down, it’d be an instant Sev1 (high availability is a feature in the enterprise version of Hashicorp Vault). But they were running their Vault in a solid configuration on what I’m assuming is a multi-region Kubernetes cluster. As long as Kubernetes is okay, Vault should be too. But, their entire org would go down if Vault went offline for seemingly any time outside a maintenance window. Build won the build vs. buy discussion partly thanks to the robustness of their Kubernetes services.

OPA or Kyverno

Here’s another red flag: no one raised their hand that they were using any kind of policy engine. No OPA or Kyverno was to be found in this room. No one had questions about it either, but there was some sheepishness in the lack of raised hands. I think complexity and inability to accurately define who should have access to what are driving factors here. But, dang, not even having the capability at your disposal is wild to think about these days.

No. No, it’s not.

Kubernetes is hard. Much like state, policy in Kubernetes is more complicated. But, establishing some basic baseline policies both projects could agree upon (even if it’s just the basics from the NSA security guidelines) would be a boon to the industry. Explaining the how and why behind each policy is critical for understanding. The ease of implementing them is also vital. The first vendor to make a list, or even better navigatable visualization, of a cluster and the traffic rules and policies that could be applied safely will have a big upper hand.


A chunk of time was spent talking about filesystems. Specifically, mounting filesystems as read-only in-cluster with writes going to an API in front of storage. It was a goal of many people in the room but was also a brand new concept to others in the room. Some folks pointed out they had to have a way to prove a filesystem was read-only for auditing purposes. They had to build tests to confirm that the attached storage was read-only.

Another group had difficulty getting their developers to understand the benefits of a read-only filesystem in a container. The security model was much tighter because you needed valid credentials to write data anywhere. But a whole chunk of code had to be written to implement this in applications. It seemed like much rewriting was required for the organization to get there too. In a nutshell, they weren’t there yet but were trying hard.


Dev, stage, prod: It’s always a problem creating consistency across environments. Data is a huge problem here. Folks didn’t have the amounts of data they stored in production environments in their other environments. At most, a subset of sanitized data was provided for use in dev and staging.

But, the problem went even deeper. Dev environments were back to needing TONS of horsepower again. Developing locally now meant running, debugging, and compiling code for applications and running them in a Kubernetes cluster on a laptop or a small cluster that was likely overprovisioned in dev.

Some folks expressed problems getting their development teams to use consistent images across different applications and environments. Getting devs to establish sane standards around Dockerfiles across environments was an issue that was put out there. But think how hard it’d be to maintain 50 apps, all with different OS versions or different OSes, completely across environments. Errors in one environment might not show up at all in another.

One org was having trouble explaining why configuration and code needed to be separated in today’s world. I was stunned by this one because I thought we had established this pattern well. Why? Because you never know what your environment will look like a year or two from now. Configuration changes might need to be made wholesale across multiple applications at once.

There are myriad problems with all layers of development, it seems. This is a little troubling given that an ideal state is a cluster-aware IDE where developers can deploy applications to an adequately resourced dev environment. But, even there, resources for Kubernetes are scarce because of operating costs. This is still a problem for folks that needs solving.

Multi-cloud? Yes, but…

Can we put this to bed yet? The only multi-cloud organization represented was due to their procurement process. They would be asked what capacity they needed, and procurement would ask all the vendors for the lowest price. Whoever bid the lowest got that organization’s business.

First, ouch! Second, having a seat at the table matters here. It would be best if you had close friends in finance. Ideally, you have a shared language and a common understanding of all sides’ concerns.

They were only rolling vanilla Kubernetes clusters because of this procurement process. The folks at this organization had the most questions and comments. They had technical expertise. But, it felt they were overwhelmed by the number of problems to solve.

They didn’t detail whether or not they had any cross-cloud activities happening. At least, those questions or comments were not made. This leads me to believe the org was project/product/service driven by the procurement process regarding cloud computing. I extrapolated from there that an entire $THING would likely be built on one cloud and done. On to the next lowest bidder for the next $THING. I empathized with them immensely. I should have had Kubernetes swag packs for these brave folks.

They did not say anything about cross-cloud connectivity or applications. They had nothing positive to say about their multi-cloud experience. I think the idea of spreading yourself across multiple clouds is noble, but the reality is that state (or data) has gravity. State is hard. There are a lot of steps when you start stretching clusters across regions (let alone whole clouds) around keeping that state consistent and accurate (remember, etcd eats IOPS for breakfast).

Anything else?

Upgrading clusters is a challenge. Creating a new cluster and migrating applications over is an expensive proposition. Most folks in the room were doing in-place upgrades with workloads moving around as needed. The need to make the upgrade process more resilient and accessible would be a colossal savior to Kubernetes users.

Creating Champions in orgs is very effective. This was highlighted in a DevOpsDays Chicago talk and the open space. Kubernetes, read-only filesystems, and almost every new conceptual process need a few champions throughout an organization. Establish a few and watch them work their magic within your org. Grab your nearest developer and see what they think about being a champion for something they’re exceptional at.

The DevOps’ish Podcast

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Editor’s note: If your event would suit the DevOps’ish audience, please let me know!

Kubernetes Contributor Summit North American 2022

October 24, 2022 at KubeCon

The Summit will have a healthy mix of content tailored to active contributors. To conclude the summit, we’ll end with Contributor Social with games and refreshments.

KubeCon + CloudNativeCon Detroit 2022

OCTOBER 24 – 28, 2022

The Cloud Native Computing Foundation’s flagship conference gathers adopters and technologists from leading open source and cloud native communities in Detroit, Michigan from October 24 – 28, 2022. Join containerd, CoreDNS, Envoy, etcd, Fluentd, Harbor, Helm, Jaeger, Kubernetes, Linkerd, Open Policy Agent, Prometheus, Rook, TiKV, TUF, Vitess, Argo, Buildpacks, Cilium, CloudEvents, CNI, Contour, Cortex, CRI-O, Crossplane, dapr, Dragonfly, Emissary Ingress, Falco, Flagger, Flux, gRPC, KEDA, KubeEdge, Litmus, Longhorn, NATS, Notary, OpenTelemetry, Operator Framework, SPIFFE, SPIRE, and Thanos as the community gathers for five days to further the education and advancement of cloud native computing. Use code KCNAIPV22MEET for a discount at registration.


FEBRUARY 4 - 5, 2023

FOSDEM is a free event for software developers to meet, share ideas and collaborate.

Every year, thousands of developers of free and open source software from all over the world gather at the event in Brussels.


Open Source Work Is Work
Per Ploug, Spotify Engineering
“The key takeaway is this: if we want to have a significant impact, we have to make open source work as similar to our internal ways of working as possible. We’ve identified five key areas that will do just that…” I need this title on a t-shirt.

Ukrainian Soldiers Reportedly Face Starlink Outages
Michael Kan, PCMag
This is a critical component of Ukraine’s success believe it or not. The FCC is having a go at Starlink because its speeds aren’t meeting US standards (100 up/20 down, last I checked). I imagine a combination of events like regional jamming, satellite constellation changes to address lower speeds in target market, and something else that I’m forgetting about. “SpaceX CEO Elon Musk declines to comment directly, arguing that ‘what’s happening on the battlefield [is] classified.’” Jamming, or electronic warfare as its traditionally called, is shockingly easy to figure out with publicly accessible equipment.

The EU wants to put companies on the hook for harmful AI
Melissa Heikkilä, MIT Technology Review
Can your AI be sued? No. But, your organization sure can be!

Boston Dynamics really does not want you to add weapons to its robots
Benj Edwards, Ars Technica
This, of course, won’t stop anyone from trying.

no hello
It’s rude to interrupt someone from what they’re doing without explanation.


The SBOM frenzy is premature
Mark Curphey, Crash Override
“In my opinion it is simply too early to declare that we have turned the corner securing open source software.” In my opinion, SBOMs aren’t actionable enough yet. Also, when have you been asked for an SBOM? I’m sure you’ve created them, but I want to know if folks are actually asking for SBOMs.

What does “open source is not a business model” actually mean?
Emily Omier
“In all cases, open source is strategic — but that doesn’t make it a business model.”

Stadia died because no one trusts Google
Devin Coldewey, TechCrunch
The truth hurts. The writing was on the wall almost as soon as the service was released. I’m shocked people are shocked by this after they fired their game devs. But, Google probably solved a lot of problems to make Stadia work. I hope those solutions make it out into the wild.

Microsoft Confirms 2 New Exchange Zero-Day Flaws Being Used in the Wild
Ravie Lakshmanan, The Hacker News
What is the deal with Exchange? It’s like the mid 00s all over again.


LKML: Linus Torvalds: Linux 6.0
Behold… Yeah, 6.1 is right around the corner.

Kubernetes Book Club
Carlos Santana
“The Kubernetes Book Club gets together every Friday 10AM EST to socialize and discuss Cloud Native books.”

You can’t buy a Raspberry Pi right now
Jeff Geerling
This is a sad truth right now. That fit in your pocket board is in a hard supply crunch. They’re prioritizing OEM partners and retail is left with nothing. Hopefully, things will shift in a few months. I’m glad I dropped the money on a used server (and upgrades) before the pandemic. I could probably double my money on it if I really wanted to. But then I’d have to go back to using an RPi per a few services. That’s less than ideal in comparison.

Skyfall: eBPF agent for infrastructure observability
Anuj Srivastava, LinkedIn Engineering
“With LinkedIn’s large infrastructure growth over the past few years, observability has become more critical to pinpoint the potential root causes for any infrastructure failure or anomaly.”

Introducing Kueue
Abdullah Gharaibeh (Google), Aldo Culquicondor (Google), Kubernetes Blog
“In this article, we introduce Kueue, an open source job queueing controller designed to manage batch jobs as a single unit. Kueue leaves pod-level orchestration to existing stable components of Kubernetes. Kueue natively supports the Kubernetes Job API and offers hooks for integrating other custom-built APIs for batch jobs.”

What’s new in v0.3.0
Craig Jellick, Acorn Labs
Encrypting and Decrypting Sensitive Data, Securing Endpoints with TLS, and a few other tweaks. My eyes aren’t so much on Acorn as they are CUE. CUE seems to be a remedy for YAML and Acorn delivers good abstractions from my understanding.

Why We Use CUE (and Not Helm)
“Cloudplane is a managed hosting platform built on Kubernetes using our own resource templates. We evaluated several templating tools and eventually settled on CUE. Here’s how we arrived at that conclusion.” See previous on YAML.

Kubernetes Policies And Admission Controllers Compared - Kyverno vs Datree (YouTube)
Victor Varcic
“Which tool for Kubernetes policies and admission controllers works better? Kyverno or Datree?”

Wireshark 4.0 Network Protocol Analyzer Released
Michael Larabel, Phoronix
One of the best packet sniffers has gotten a fresh coat of paint.

Pelikan is Twitter’s unified cache backend

konf is a lightweight kubeconfig manager. With konf you can use different kubeconfigs at the same time. And because it does not need subshells, konf is blazing fast!

BadRobot - Operator Security Audit Tool

DevOps’ish Post of the Week

Kinda mean, but I feel like this too sometimes. Just merge my changes, PLEASE!!!

@shitPM on Twitter: “Strong Junior Dev energy offa this.”)


Notes from this week’s issue can be found on GitHub